# Python Operators

In this tutorial, we will see all the python operators.

##### What is the operator?

Operators are the symbols that trigger the action on an object or variable. The object and variables in which the operation is performed are called operands. There are many operators in python programming. It is something like this.

We will see all the operators here :

##### Arithmetic Operator

Arithmetic operators are performed in numerical values to perform normal mathematical operations.

OperatorNameDescriptionExample
-SubtractionSubtraction of two operandsa-b
*MultiplicationMultiplication of two operandsa*b
/DivisionDivision of one operand by another one.
Key Point: Output is always float.
a/b
%ModulusWhen division of one operand by another operand, %(modules) return remainder.a%b
**ExponentiationReturn Powera**b
//Floor DivisionDivision of one operand by another one same as division ( / ) operator.
Key point : Output depends on input, if input is int type, output will be int type, if input is float type, output will be float type.
a//b
##### Examples: Arithmetic Operators in Python
```#Example of Arithmetic operator

a = 20
b = 10
print(a-b)  #subtration
print(a*b)  #Multiplication
print(a/b)  #Division, Always return Float value
print(a**b) #Exponentiation, Power
print(a%b) #Modules, for remainder
print(a//b) #Floor Division

```
Output :
```30
10
200
2.0
10240000000000
0
2``` ##### Assignment Operator

Assignment operators are used to assign a value to the variable name.

OperatorDescriptionExample
=It assign the value to the variable.a = 20
+=Adding the value given in the right operand to the left operand. This will modify the value of the left operand.a+=10
-=Reduce the value given in the right operand to the left operand. This will modify the value of the left operand.a-=10
*=Multiplication the value given in the right operand to the left operand. This will modify the value of the left operand.a*=2
/=Division the value given in the right operand to the left operand. This will modify the value of the left operand.a/=2
//=Almost same as /= but the key point is output depends on operand , if operand is int type then output will be int type.a//=2
**=Same as previous operator but this operator performs Exponentiation
(power).
a**=2
%=The remainder obtained by dividing the value of the right operand by the value of the left operand. This will modify the value of the left operand.a%=2
##### Examples: Assignment Operators in Python
```#Example of Assignment operator

# = , += , -= , *= , /=

a = 4  #assign 4 to variable a.

a += 2  #Now the value of a is 6

a -= 3  #Now the value of a is 3

a *= 2 #Now the value of a is 6

a /=3  #Now the value of a is 2.0 , / operator returns float

print(a)```
Output
`2.0`
```#Example of Assignment operator

# //= , **= , %=

b = 10

b //= 2

""" Now the value of b is 5. If the input is int then output is int in the case of floor division. """

b **= 3 #Now the value of b is 125.

b %= 4 #Now the value of b is 1.

print(b)```

Output

`1` ##### Comparison Operator

A comparison operator is used to compare two values. It gives output in the form of True and False. ##### Examples: Comparison Operator in Python
```#Example of Comparison operator

a = 10

b = 10

c = 12

print(a == b)

print(a != b)

print(c > a)

print(c < a)

print(a >= b)

print(a <= b)

```

Output

```True
False
True
False
True
True``` ##### Identity Operator

The most important point is, if two values are exactly the same, then they are saved in the same memory location.

The identity operator compares the memory location of the value and checks the value is the same or not.

is and is not are the two identity operators in python.

OperatorDescriptionExample
isIf the memory location of the objects are same then the output will true otherwise false.a = 10
b = 10
print( a is b )
is notIf the memory location of the objects are not same then the output will true otherwise false.a = 10
b = 10
print( a is not b )
##### Examples: Identity Operators in Python
```#Example of identity operator

a = 10

b = 10

c = "10"     #string

print(a is b)

print(a is not b)

print(a is c)

print(a is not c)

```

Output

```True
False
False
True``` ##### Logical Operator

The logical operator is one of the most important operators in python. A logical operator is used when we have to combine two or more than two conditions.

##### Types of Logical Operator

There are three logical operators in python.

• and
• or
• not

###### And Logical Operator

In the case of and logical operator, if both the conditions are true then the output is True. if both the conditions are false the output will also be false. One of the main things is if only one condition is false the output will be false.

Here is the and operator table. Here are all the possible conditions.

Condition 1Condition 2Output
TrueTrueTrue
TrueFalseFalse
FalseTrueFalse
FalseFalseFalse
###### Examples: And Logical Operator in Python
```#Example of and logical operator

a = 10

print(a > 5 and a < 15)

#Both conditions are true then the output is true.

print(a < 5 and a > 15)

#Both conditions are false then the output is false.

print(a > 9 and a < 8)

#One condition is false then the output is false.

```

Output

```True
False
False``` ###### Or Logical Operator

In the case of or logical operator, if both the conditions are true then the output is True. if both the conditions are false the output will also be false. One of the main things is if only one condition is true the output will be true.

Here is the or operator table. Here are all the possible conditions.

Condition 1Condition 2Output
TrueTrueTrue
TrueFalseTrue
FalseTrueTrue
FalseFalseFalse
###### Examples: Or Logical Operators in Python
```#Example of or logical operator

a = 10

print(a > 5 or a < 15)

#Both conditions are true then the output is true.

print(a < 5 or a > 15)

#Both conditions are false then the output is false.

print(a > 9 or a < 8)

#One condition is true then the output is true.

```

Output

```True
False
True``` ###### Not Logical Operator

In the case of this operator, if the result is coming true and applying this operator it becomes false. This means it converts True to False and False to True.

Here is the not-operator table.

InputResult
TrueFalse
FalseTrue
###### Examples: Not Logical Operator in Python
```#Example of not logical operator

a = True

print(not(a))

b = False

print(not(b))

c = 10

print(not(a > 5 and a < 15))

'''Both conditions are true then the Output will be true but here output is false because not operator is engaged.'''

```

Output

```False
True
True

``` ##### Membership Operator

The membership Operator is used to check particular element is present or not in the specified sequence such as string, list, tuples, and dictionary, etc.

in and not in are the two membership operators in python.

OperatorDescriptionExample
inIf the element to be found is in the specified sequence then it will return true. If that element is not in sequence then it will return false.a = "Membership"
print("r" in a)
not inThis is the just opposite of in operator. If the element to be not found is in the specified sequence then it will return true. If that element is in sequence then it will return false.a = "Membership"
print("r" not in a)
##### Example: Membership Operator in Python
```#Example of Membership operator

# in, not in - Membership Operator

a = [10,20,30,40,50]  #list

print(50 in a)

print(40 in a)

print(60 not in a)

print(70 not in a)

b = "python"         #string

print("p" in b)

print("h" not in b)```

Output

```True
True
True
True
True
False```
##### Bitwise Operator

Bitwise operators are used to perform operations in binary numbers.

Bitwise operators work in bits ( 0 and 1). If bitwise operations are performed in an integer number then it is converted to binary and then perform operations.

OperatorDescriptionExample
&Bitwise ANDa & b
|Bitwise ORa | b
^Bitwise XORa ^ b
~Bitwise inversion(one's Complement)~a
<<Bitwise Left Shifta << 2
>>Bitwise Right Shifta >> 2
###### Bitwise And

In the case of AND bitwise operator, it will return 1 if both operands are 1. If the value of any of the operands is 0 then the result will be O. The symbol of bitwise and operator is &.

Here is a table of AND Bitwise Operator.

Operand 1Operand 2Result
111
100
010
000
###### Examples: Bitwise AND Operator in Python
```#Example of Bitwise and operator

a = 10 # 1010 --> Binary Value

b = 15 # 1111 --> Binary Value

c = a & b

print(c)``` Output

`10`
###### Bitwise OR

In the case of OR bitwise operator, If the value of only one operand is 1, then the result will be 1. If both operand’s values are 0, then the value will be 0. The symbol of bitwise and operator is |.

Here is a table of OR Bitwise Operators.

Operand 1Operand 2Result
111
101
011
000
###### Examples: Bitwise OR Operators in Python
```#Example of OR Bitwise Operator

a = 10   #1010 --> Binary Value

b = 15   #1111 --> Binary Value

c = a | b

print(c)``` Output

`15`
###### Bitwise XOR

In the case of XOR bitwise operator, If both operands are the same then the result will be 0. If both the operands are different then the result will be 1. It means if one operand is 1 and the other is 0 then the result will be 1. The symbol of the XOR operator is ^.

Here is the table of the XOR bitwise operator.

Operand 1Operand 2Result
110
101
011
000
###### Examples: Bitwise XOR Operators in Python
```#Example of OR Bitwise Operator

a = 10 #1010 --> Binary Value

b = 15 #1111 --> Binary Value

c = a ^ b

print(c)```

###  Output

`5`
###### Bitwise NOT

In the Bitwise NOT operator, reverse the beat, if it means 1 then it will turn 0 and if it’s 0, we’ll make it 1. The symbol of the bitwise not operator is ~.

Bitwise NOT(~) is also a unary operator. Unary operators are those which require only one operand to work.

OperandResultExample
101101 --> 0010 (Binary Number)
011010 --> 0101 (Binary Number)
###### Shift Operator: Left Shift and Right Shift

Shifts the bits in the shift operator. Bits can be shifted left and right.

Left Shift (<<)

In Left Shift, As many numbers are given, we will shift the same bit to the left and will fill 0 in whatever place is left by this operation.

###### Examples: Bitwise Left Shift and Right Shift Operator in Python
```#Example of Left Shift and Right Shift

a = 10

a << 2  # 2 step left shift

print(a)

a = 10

a >> 2 # 2 step right shift

print(a)

``` ##### Example: Bitwise operator in python
```#Example of Bitwise operator

a = 10 # 1010 --> Binary Value

b = 15 # 1111 --> Binary Value

c = a & b     #Bitwise AND (&) operator

d = a | b     #Bitwise OR (|) operator

e = a ^ b     #Bitwise XOR (^) operator

print(c)

print(d)

print(e)

print(~a)     #Bitwise NOT operator

#Bitwise Shift Operator

a << 2 # 2 step left shift

print(a)

a >> 2 # 2 step right shift

print(a)```

Output

```10
15
5
-11
10
10```

####   